Gascony is ancient 'Occitan', the land of Troubadours and Musketeers, where country people today still speak the pre-French language of 'Gascon' in the markets. The only city, Auch, is close to the birthplace of d'Artagnan, hero of the book (and many films) of 'The Three Musketeers'.
Gascony was the core territory of Roman Gallia-Aquitania. By the 2nd century AD, this Province had extended to include much of western Roman Gaul, as far north as the Loire. Thus, the name of the Aquitani came to be transferred to the territory of central-western France later known as the Duchy of Aquitaine, located to the North and West of Gascony. After the collapse of the Roman Empire it seems that a Gallo-Roman culture continued to thrive in Gascony, until the independent Dukedom of Gascony was consolidated around 850AD. This Duchy remained independent until the House of Poitiers (Dukes of Aquitaine) took control in around 1050 as Dukes of Aquitaine and Gascony. This line continued until in 1152, The Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine (and Gascony) married the Angevin Prince of Wales and future Henry II of England.
For the next 300 years a large part of France, including Gascony, was controlled by the (Angevin/Plantagenet) Kings of England. During this period Edward I ('Longshanks') of England, and his great-grandson, Edward The Black Prince, actively used the title 'Duke of Gascony'. When The 100 Years War ended in 1453 with the defeat of England by France at the Battle of Castillon near Bordeaux, the Dukedom of Gascony ceased to exist and Gascony joined the gradual consolidation of the regions of France into a single nation. Having said this, Gascony has always seemed a long way from Paris, is still proudly independent and 'Gascon' in its ways. It is said that even at the time of the French Revolution, the 'guillotine' had become quite blunt by the time it arrived in Gascony!
Gascony is a beautiful, welcoming, unspoilt and deeply rural part of South West France, close to the Pyrenees Mountains and stretching all the way between the exciting cities of Bordeaux and Toulouse. The historic Dukedom of Gascony is now mainly within the modern 'departement' of 'Le Gers', but for 300 years during the Middle Ages was part of the English Angevin empire. Gascony is ancient 'Occitan', the land of Troubadours and Musketeers. Auch, the only (and very small) city, is close to the birthplace of the real-life d'Artagnan, of 'The Three Musketeers'.
Gascony is different from the better known regions of France such as the Cote d'Azure, Provence or the Dordogne. Gascony is famous for its 'douceur de vivre' (sweetness of life). Here you will find real countryside, with endless rolling hills and wooded valleys, very low population density and little traffic, welcoming local people, wonderful star-lit night skies, and on a clear day you will see the majestic snow-capped Pyrenees marching across the Southern horizon. There is very little noise and virtually no air or light pollution - creating a clear, luminous quality of light greatly appreciated by painters and photographers. Summer days are long, warm and sunny, without being painfully hot. May/June and September/October can offer the best weather in the year.
Gascony is one of France's best-kept secrets, a bit like Tuscany in Italy but very French with an added dash of Spanish fun! The land is covered with vineyards, sunflowers and Cypress trees. There are fine medieval churches, iconic 'pigeoniers', fascinating mediaeval 'bastide' villages and imposing fortified castles. Many of these ancient places are associated with the 2000-year-old pilgrim routes to Santiago de Compostela in North West Spain. Hidden amongst these historic treasures are old, stone-built chateaux, country houses, farmhouses and cottages.
Farms in Gascony are typically small, family affairs, many run organically with mixed production and nature-conservation a natural habit. There are masses of wild flowers, fine old oak woods, hidden lakes, bees, butterflies, exotic birds, deer and wild boar. There is a flourishing street market somewhere nearby every day of the week, with delicious seasonal fruits and vegetables, superb garlic, wild honey and a vast range of locally produced meats, breads, and cheeses. Gascony produces a rich variety of authentic country wines and liqueurs, including world-famous Armagnac which has been produced in this area for over 600 years.
Driving in Gascony is a pleasure, bicycling and horse-riding are popular and walking a real joy; golf, tennis, fishing, water-skiing, hot-air ballooning and micro-light flying are all available. About an hour South of Auch you will reach the Pyrenees, where there is excellent, uncrowded skiing in winter and in summer, sensational walking rafting, canoeing and paragliding. Two and a half hours West of Auch takes you to the Atlantic beaches and the same distance East you will find the Mediterranean. In summer, every village and town has its own vibrant festival, of which the most famous is the Marciac International Jazz Festival.
There is always something for everyone in the family to do - or you can have great pleasure doing absolutely nothing except lying by your pool or sitting at one of the many traditional bars and cafés watching the world go gently by...
Visitors to Gascony can unwind, relax and enjoy that unique sense of ‘bien-être’ (well-being) that affects everyone in this wonderful part of 'La Belle France'. After a holiday in Gascony you will return home restored and refreshed - and thinking about when you will come here again!
Auch is the historical capital of Gascony and takes its name from the Aquitanian tribe that inhabited the area at the time of the Roman conquest in the 50s BC.
Auch is known today for its Renaissance Cathédrale Sainte-Marie which stands prominently on a hill in the middle of the medieval town of narrow winding streets, small shops and appealing restaurants. There is also a statue of d'Artagnan, made famous in the book The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas, whose character was based on the real life person, Charles de Batz, Comte d'Artagnan, born nearby in the Château de Castelmore.
Bordeaux, originally part of Gascony, is now the capital of the modern Aquitaine region, which takes its name from the old Duchy of Aquitaine, which before the 100 Years War belonged to England. The historic part of the city, including the sea port, is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century, giving Bordeaux its nickname of "La perle d'Aquitaine".
Wine has been produced in the Bordeaux area since ancient times but it was during the 300 years of Angevin/English occupation that the foundations were laid for making Gascon and Bordeaux wines and Armagnacs the famous drinks we know today. Bordeaux is still recognized as one of the centres of world wine-making.
Montauban, like Toulouse, is built mainly of a reddish brick, and stands on the right bank of the River Tarn. Montauban is the second oldest of the bastides of SW France. In 1570, it became one of the four Huguenot strongholds that formed a small independent Protestant republic.
One of the main sights is the remarkable early C14th brick bridge across the River Tarn. It is a pink structure over 205 metres (224 yards) in length, in a good state of preservation. The Musée Ingres (C17th) stands at the east end of the bridge. It is the largest collection of Ingres paintings in the world and houses most of the work of the celebrated painter, whose birth in Montauban is commemorated by an elaborate monument.
We list here just four of the many historic market towns of Gascony.
Condom is an old, richly built town with a fine C13th Cathedral, sited where one of the main pilgrim routes to Santiago de Compostela crosses the River Baise at its highest navigable point. Condom is one of the centres of wine and Armagnac production and it still has its river port where barges used to be loaded with barrels to take them down the rivers Baise and Garonne to Bordeaux, for export all around Europe.
There has been a hill-top settlement at Lectoure since pre-Roman times. Like Condom, it lies on one of the pilgrim routes. Today’s market town is architecturally very attractive with the old C18th hospital (now used as a centre by a number of small antiques and ‘brocante’ traders) a particular attraction. The Friday morning market is excellent and there are a number of good cafés, bistros and restaurants. On the edge of town there is a fascinating workshop/shop called ‘Bleu de Lectoure’ which makes and sells clothes and fabric dyed with the famous blue ‘woad’.
Fleurance was founded as a ‘bastide’ in 1274 and is today a flourishing market town, with one of the largest local markets every Tuesday morning and a smaller market on Saturday mornings. The old market hall burned down but its C19th replacement is a very fine building. Fleurance takes its name (in effect ‘stole’ its name) from Florence in Italy. Inhabitants of Fleurance are known as ‘Florentins’ (men) or Florentines (women).
Founded in 1275, Mauvezin is another bastide town, with a very large and fine C14th market hall. Today, the central ‘place’ and this hall host Mauvezin’s Monday morning market. Historically, Mauvezin was on the front-line between Gascony and the County of Toulouse, and also played a significant part in the French religious wars of C16th, when it was ‘rescued’ from its Catholic hinterland by the Protestant Henri of Navarre, who became the renowned ‘Good King’ Henri IV of France.
There are hundreds of fascinating and very attractive medieval villages in the 'departement' of Le Gers and in wider Gascony, many of them 'bastides' and 'castelnaux'. A visit to any (or many!) of these is a wonderful complement to your holiday, whether to enjoy the architectural beauty, the local market, the café or restaurant, or just the timeless atmosphere of these historic places.
The Bastide idea was originally conceived by Henry II, King of England and Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony, and was based on the principles of Roman town-planning. Individual feudal landlords followed Henry’s formula whereby the landlord (King, Bishop, Count, etc) built the main infrastructure of a central market place (with market hall and church), which was surrounded by commercial buildings fronted by covered arcades. Beyond the market place there was often a rectilinear grid layout of streets (with rudimentary drains) and a modular system of house plots, each with a vegetable garden. The founding landlords often used surprisingly sophisticated commercial, marketing and taxation strategies to promote their new developments!
Some of these villages are featured in the gallery of photographs below, such as Auvillar, Cologne, Forces, Gramont, La Romieu, Larresingle, Lavardens, Maubec, Monfort, Moissac, Rouillac, Sarrant, Solomiac, St Clar, St Puy and Terraube.
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